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N°2 – Composition of a control regulating system training (VTC to A level)

A basic regulating system ensures 4 functions:

  • Measurement: a sensor or detection probe which measures a physical output value (ex.: a temperature sensor).
  • Comparison: a controller which interprets the measurement and compares it to the set. If the measurement is different to the set point, the regulator sends a signal to rectify. The controller is the brain of the system.
  • Transmission: an actuator controlled by the regulator adjusts the control element (ex.: a valve servomotor).
  • Action: a control element which modifies the power of the system (ex.: the gate of a two way valve which regulates inlet water flow of an emitter).

We represent these different elements as follows:

Let’s look at some elements:

      Water temperature                Air  temperature                          Controller

Valve control servo motor                                                 Regulating valve